Thursday, November 11, 2010



Cognitive theory is based the assumption that cognitive ability is something fundamental and guiding your child's behavior. with these cognitive abilities, then the child is seen as individuals who actively construct their own knowledge about the world.

A. Gestalt Theory
Max Wertheimer was the founder of Gestalt who was born in Prague, Germany on April 15, 1880 and died in New York on October 12, 1943. He has about observation and problem Solving. Contribution followed by Kurt Koffka was born in Berlin on March 18, 1886 and died in North - ampton, Massachusetts, United States on November 22, 1941. Koffka describes in detail about the laws of observation. He systematically presents the principles of Gestalt psychology in a series of symptoms such as: perception, learning, remembering, and social psychology.
Koffka about learning theory, among others, (a) the memory footprint is an experience that made an impression on the brain. (B) the passage of time affect the memory trace. (C) ongoing training will reinforce the memory trace.
Walfgang Kohler (1887-1950) continued research and Koffka Wetheimer with research on insight in chimpanzees.
Important concept in Gestalt psychology is the observation or insight that is sudden understanding of the relationships between parts in a problem situation. The essence of the theory of gestalt psychology is that the mind (mind) are attempts to interpret sensations and experiences that enter as a whole is organized according to certain properties and not as a collection of data units separate.
According pandanagan gestalt psychology, sensation melalai someone to gain knowledge or information by looking at the overall structure and then putting it back together in a simpler structure so easily understood.

B. THEORY constructivist
Constructivist theory is the further development of the gestalt. The difference is, the gestalt problem that is raised from external provocation, while the constructivist, problems arising from the knowledge that reconstructed built solely by students.
1. John Dewey
John Dewey was a philosopher, an educationalist and psychologist from America who was born in barlington on October 20, 1859 and died in New York on June 1, 1952.
John Dewey is known as the father of constructivism. The idea is used as the father konstruksivisme and Discovery Learning. He argues that learning to learn depending on experience and students' own interests and the topic in the curriculum should be integrated rather than separate or have no relation to one another. Learning should be active, direct involvement, student-centered (SCL = Student - Centered Learning) in the context of social experience.
2. Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget was born on August 9, 1896, in Neuchatel, Switzerland. He died in Geneva on 16 September 1980.
Piaget's theory is to explain how children adapt and interpret objects and events around them. How children learn the characteristic and function of objects such as toys, furniture, and food, as well as social objects such as yourself, parents, and friends. How children learn to classify car objects to determine their similarities and differences.
Piaget's view that children play an active role in preparing his knowledge of reality. Children do not passively receive information.
Thinking according to Piaget's stage of development that is
1. Sensorimotorik (0 -2 Years), is the period the child learns to recognize objects, and how he memanipulasikannya
2. Preoperational (2-7 years), during this period the child may think differently with simple categories.
3. Concrete Operational (7-11 years), I think the child during this stage become more flexible and less egocentric in character than the previous levels.
4. Formal operational (12-15 years), the capacity of maturity in reasoning, abstraction and thinking power inpotesis emerge gradually,
The learning process actually there are 3 stages, namely
1. Assimilation is the process of unification or integration of new information into existing cognitive structures into the minds of students.
2. Accommodation is the adjustment of cognitive structure in new situations.
3. Disequilibrium and equilibrium of continuous adjustment between assimilation and accommodation.

3. Jerome Brunner (1915 -)
Professor Jerome Brunner is the psychology of U.S. nationals, according to him learning is an active process that is associated with the idea of the Discovery Learning the students interact with their environment through exploration and manipulate objects, create questions and conduct experiments.
Brunner argued that the learning process is more determined by how to set the subject matter and not determined by the elements of a person like that has been put forward by Piaget. Brunner describes the development in three stages:
1. Enaktif (0-3 years) of children's understanding is achieved through self exploration and physical manipulation - motor through sensory experience.
2. Iconic (3-8 years) that the child realizes there is something independently through a concrete image or picture is not an abstract.
3. Symbolic (> 8 years) that children already understand the symbols and concepts such as language and the representation of numbers as symbols.

4. Lev Vygotsky
Vygotsky was a Russian philosopher. The term is often used is the social impact, scaffolding, and zone of proximal development (ZPD).
The core constructivist Vygotsky is the interaction between internal and external aspects of its emphasis on the social environment in learning.
Learning based on the scaffolding that provides the skills necessary to solve problems independently as discussed denagn students, direct practice, and provide reinforcement.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the area where the child mapu to learn with the help of a competent person.

According to cognitive learning theory, knowledge can not be moved away from the minds of teachers to students' minds. meaning, that students should be active mentally build the structure of knowledge based on cognitive maturity he has.
Characteristic in the view of cognitive learning are as follows.
(1) Provide a learning experience by linking existing knowledge so that students learn through the process of knowledge formation.
(2) Provide an alternative learning experience, not all do the same task, such a problem can be solved in various ways.
(3) Integrating learning with a realistic and relevant situations involving concrete experience, for example, to understand a concept the students through the realities of everyday life.
(4) Integrating learning and so enable the transmission of social interaction and cooperation of a person with another person or with their environment, such as interaction and cooperation between students, teachers and students.
(5) Utilizing a variety of media including oral and written communication so that learning becomes more effective.
(6) Involve students emotionally and socially so that students become interesting and the students willing to learn.
The aim of education according to cognitive learning theory are:
a. Generate individual or a child who has the ability to think to solve every problem faced,
b. The curriculum is designed so that any of the circumstances that allow the knowledge and skills can be constructed by the learner.
c. Learners are expected to be active and to find a suitable way of learning for themselves. Teachers act as facilitators, and friends who make the situation conducive to the construction of knowledge on self-learners


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